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Mycotoxins are some of the most prevalent toxins in the environment. Mycotoxins are metabolites produced by fungi like mold, which can infest buildings, vehicles, and foodstuffs. A majority of mycotoxin exposures are through food ingestion or airborne exposure.
Diseases and symptoms linked to mycotoxin exposure include fever, pneumonia-like symptoms, heart disease, rheumatic disease, asthma, sinusitis, cancer, memory loss, vision loss, chronic fatigue, skin rashes, depression, ADHD, anxiety, and liver damage.
Via mycotoxin test profile, we can identify mycotoxin exposures and make recommendations for detoxification treatments that have been effective.
Our Mycotoxin test screens for seven different mycotoxins, from four species of mold, in one urine sample.
MycoTOX is the most comprehensive mycotoxin test available.
MycoTOX uses the power of advanced mass spectrometry (MS/MS), which is necessary to detect lower levels of these fungal toxins. This makes our test more sensitive and more accurate. Follow-up testing is recommended to ensure that detoxification therapies have been successful.
- AFLATOXIN M1 (AFM1): can cause liver damage, cancer, mental impairment, abdominal pain, hemorrhaging, coma, and death. Aflatoxin has been shown to inhibit leucocyte proliferation. Clinical signs of aflatoxicosis are non-pruritic macular rash, headache, gastrointestinal dysfunction (often extreme), lower extremity edema, anemia, and jaundice. The toxicity of Aflatoxin is increased in the presence of Ochratoxin and Zearalenone.
- OCHRATOXIN A (OTA): nephrotoxic, immunotoxic, and carcinogenic mycotoxin. This chemical is produced by molds in the Aspergillus and Penicillium families. Exposure is primarily through contaminated foods such as cereals, grape juices, dairy, spices, wine, dried vine fruit, and coffee. OTA can lead to kidney disease and adverse neurological effects.
- STERIGMATOCYSTIN (STG): mycotoxin that is closely related to aflatoxin. STG is produced from several species of mold such as Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Bipolaris. It is considered to be carcinogenic, particularly in the cells of the GI tract and liver. STG has been found in the dust from damp carpets. It is also a contaminant of many foods including grains, corn, bread, cheese, spices, coffee beans, soybeans, pistachio nuts, and animal feed. In cases of lung aspergilloma, STG has been found in human tissue specimens. The toxicity of STG affects the liver, kidneys, and immune system. Tumors have been found in the lungs of rodents that were exposed to STG.
- RORIDIN E: macrocyclic trichothecene produced by the mold species Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys (i.e. black mold). Trichothecenes are frequently found in buildings with water damage but can also be found in contaminated grain. Even low levels of exposure to macrocyclic trichothecenes can cause severe neurological damage, immunosuppression, endocrine disruption, cardiovascular problems, and gastrointestinal distress.
- VERRUCARIN A: macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxin produced from Stachybotrys, Fusarium, and Myrothecium. Trichothecenes are frequently found in buildings with water damage but can also be found in contaminated grain. VRA is a small, amphipathic molecule that can move passively across cell membranes. The primary tissues affected by VRA are intestinal and gastric mucosa, bone marrow, and spleen. VRA causes damage to human cells by inhibiting protein and DNA synthesis, disrupting mitochondrial functions, and by producing oxidative stress (due to generation of free radicals). Exposure to VRA can cause immunological problems, vomiting, skin dermatitis, and hemorrhagic lesions.
- ENNIATIN B1: fungal metabolite categorized as cyclohexa depsipeptides toxin produced by the fungus Fusarium. This strain of fungus is one of the most common cereal contaminants. Grains in many different countries have recently been contaminated with high levels of enniatin. The toxic effects of enniatin are caused by the inhibition of the acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase, depolarization of mitochondria, and inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption. Enniatin has antibiotic properties and chronic exposure may lead to weight loss, fatigue, and liver disease.
- ZEARALENONE (ZEA): mycotoxin that is produced by the mold species Fusarium, and has been shown to be hepatotoxic, haematotoxic, immunotoxic, and genotoxic. ZEA is commonly found in several foods in the US, Europe, Asia, and Africa including wheat, barley, rice, and maize. ZEA has estrogenic activity and exposure to ZEA can lead to reproductive changes.
SPECIES OF MOLD TESTED
- ASPERGILLUS: most prevalent mold group in the environment. It has caused billions of dollars of in damage to crops and livestock. Two of the most common Aspergillus mycotoxins are aflatoxin and ochratoxin. The main target of these toxins is the liver. These toxins have been found in all major cereal crops including peanuts, corn, cotton, millet, rice, sorghum, sunflower seeds, wheat, and a variety of spices. They are also found in eggs, milk, and meat from animals fed contaminated grains. Diseases caused by Aspergillus are called aspergillosis. The most common route of infection is through the respiratory system. Aspergillus can cause severe asthma when the mold colonizes the lung, forming a granulomatous disease.
- PENICILLUM: It is often found in indoor environments and is responsible for many allergic reactions. Penicillium is also a known contaminant in many different food items. Many different types of citrus fruits can become contaminated with Penicillium, but it can also contaminate seeds and grains. One reason that Penicillium is such a common infestation is because of its ability to thrive in low humidity. In the home, Penicillium can be found in wallpaper, carpet, furniture, and fiberglass insulation. The most common mycotoxin produced by Penicillium is ochratoxin (OTA). Ochratoxin is nephrotoxic, which means that it damages the kidneys. It is also carcinogenic.
- STACHYBOTRYS: This mold can grow on materials with high cellulose and low nitrogen content such as gypsum board, paper, fiberboard, and ceiling tiles. Stachybotrys is known for its production of the highly toxic macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins. Two of the more common mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys are roridin E and verrucarin. In addition to these mycotoxins, the fungus produces nine phenylspirodrimanes, as well as cyclosporine, which are potent immunosuppressors. These immunosupressors along with the mycotoxin trichothecenes may be responsible for the high toxicity of Stachybotrys.
- FUSARIUM: grows worldwide on many different types of grains including corn and wheat. Exposure to mycotoxins from Fusarium can lead to both acute and chronic effects. These symptoms can include abdominal distress, malaise, diarrhea, emesis, and death. ZEN possesses estrogenic effects and has been implicated in reproductive disorders.
Urine: 5 mL of the first morning urine before food or drink is suggested. Fasting for 12 hours may increase the excretion of mycotoxins from the adipose tissue. However, fasting is not recommended if running this test in combination with other urine tests.
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Mykotoksiner er nogle af de mest fremherskende toksiner i miljøet.
Sygdomme og symptomer forbundet med mykotoksineksponering omfatter feber, lungebetændelseslignende symptomer, hjertesygdom, reumatisk sygdom, astma, bihulebetændelse, kræft, hukommelsestab, synstab, kronisk træthed, hududslæt, depression, ADHD, angst og leverskader.
Vores mykotoksin testskærme til syv forskellige mykotoksiner, fra fire slags skimmel, i en urinprøve.
MycoTOX er den mest omfattende mykotoksintest til rådighed.
VI TESTER FOR FOELGENDE:
- AFLATOXIN M1 (AFM1): Kan forårsage leverskader, kræft, nedsat mentalitet, mavesmerter, blødninger, koma og død.
- OCHRATOXIN A (OTA): nefrotoksisk, immunotoksisk og kræftfremkaldende mycotoxin. OTA kan føre til nyresygdom og negative neurologiske virkninger.
- STERIGMATOCYSTIN (STG): mykotoksin, der er tæt forbundet med aflatoksin. Toksiciteten af TG påvirker leveren, nyrerne og immunsystemet.
- RORIDIN E: kan forårsage alvorlig neurologisk skade, immunosuppression, hormonforstyrrelse, kardiovaskulære problemer og gastrointestinal lidelse.
- VERRUCARIN A: De primære væv påvirket af VRA er tarm- og maveslimhinde, knoglemarv og milt. VRA forårsager skade på humane celler ved at inhibere protein og DNA syntese og forstyrre mitokondriale funktioner.
- ENNIATIN B1: kronisk eksponering kan føre til vægttab, træthed og leversygdom.
- ZEARALENONE (ZEA): vist at være hepatotoksisk, hæmatotoksisk og immunotoksisk. ZEA har østrogen aktivitet, og eksponering for ZEA kan føre til reproduktive forandringer.
- ASPERGILLUS: Den mest almindelige infektionsrute er gennem åndedrætssystemet. Aspergillus kan forårsage alvorlig astma, når formen koloniserer lungen, der danner en granulomatøs sygdom.
- PENICILLUM: beskadiger nyrerne og også kræftfremkaldende.
- STACHYBOTRYS: potente immunosuppressorer.
- FUSARIUM: Symptomer kan omfatte abdominal nød, utilpashed, diarré, emesis og død. ZEN har østrogene virkninger og har været impliceret i reproduktive sygdomme.
SPECIFIKKE KRAV TIL PROEVETAGNING
Urin: 5 ml af den første morgen urin før mad eller drikke. Faste i 12 timer kan øge udskillelsen af ykotoksiner fra fedtvæv. Fastning anbefales dog ikke, hvis du kører denne test i kombination med andre urinprøver.